Category Archives: Turkey ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ท

Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape

This site rises high above the Bakirรงay Plain in Turkeyโ€™s Aegean region. The acropolis of Pergamon was the capital of the Hellenistic Attalid dynasty, a major centre of learning in the ancient world. Monumental temples, theatres, stoa or porticoes, gymnasium, altar and library were set into the sloping terrain surrounded by an extensive city wall. The rock-cut Kybele Sanctuary lies to the north-west on another hill visually linked to the acropolis. Later the city became capital of the Roman province of Asia known for its Asclepieion healing centre. The acropolis crowns a landscape containing burial mounds and remains of the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman empires in and around the modern town of Bergama on the lower slopes.

Since 2014 it is a Unesco site.

Thanks to Tayfun for the postcard.

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Selimiye Mosque and its Social Complex

The square Mosque with its single great dome and four slender minarets, dominates the skyline of the former Ottoman capital of Edirne. Sinan, the most famous of Ottoman architects in the 16th century, considered the complex, which includes madrasas (Islamic schools), a covered market, clock house, outer courtyard and library, to be his best work. The interior decoration using Iznik tiles from the peak period of their production testifies to an art form that remains unsurpassed in this material. The complex is considered to be the most harmonious expression ever achieved of the Ottoman kรผlliye, a group of buildings constructed around a mosque and managed as a single institution.

Since 2011 it is a Unesco site.

Thanks to Tayfun for the postcard.

Hattusha: the Hittite Capital

The archaeological site of Hattusha, former capital of the Hittite Empire, is notable for its urban organization, the types of construction that have been preserved (temples, royal residences, fortifications), the rich ornamentation of the Lions’ Gate and the Royal Gate, and the ensemble of rock art at Yazilikaya. The city enjoyed considerable influence in Anatolia and northern Syria in the 2nd millennium B.C.

Since 1986 it is a Unesco site.

Thanks toย Muhammet for the postcards.

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Ephesus

Located within what was once the estuary of the River Kaystros, Ephesus comprises successive Hellenistic and Roman settlements founded on new locations, which followed the coastline as it retreated westward. Excavations have revealed grand monuments of the Roman Imperial period including the Library of Celsus and the Great Theatre. Little remains of the famous Temple of Artemis, one of the โ€œSeven Wonders of the World,โ€ which drew pilgrims from all around the Mediterranean. Since the 5th century, the House of the Virgin Mary, a domed cruciform chapel seven kilometres from Ephesus, became a major place of Christian pilgrimage. The Ancient City of Ephesus is an outstanding example of a Roman port city, with sea channel and harbour basin.

Since 2015 it is a Unesco site.

Thanks to Martina for the postcard.

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Hierapolis-Pamukkale

Deriving from springs in a cliff almost 200 m high overlooking the plain, calcite-laden waters have created at Pamukkale (Cotton Palace) an unreal landscape, made up of mineral forests, petrified waterfalls and a series of terraced basins. At the end of the 2nd century B.C. the dynasty of the Attalids, the kings of Pergamon, established the thermal spa of Hierapolis. The ruins of the baths, temples and other Greek monuments can be seen at the site.

Since 1988 it is a Unesco site.

Thanks to Burku for the postcard.

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Historic Areas of Istanbul

With its strategic location on the Bosphorus peninsula between the Balkans and Anatolia, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, Istanbul has been associated with major political, religious and artistic events for more than 2,000 years. Its masterpieces include the ancient Hippodrome of Constantine, the 6th-century Hagia Sophia and the 16th-century Sรผleymaniye Mosque, all now under threat from population pressure, industrial pollution and uncontrolled urbanization.

Since 1985 it is a Unesco site.

Thanks to Esin for the postcard.

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Gรถreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia

In a spectacular landscape, entirely sculpted by erosion, the Gรถreme valley and its surroundings contain rock-hewn sanctuaries that provide unique evidence of Byzantine art in the post-Iconoclastic period. Dwellings, troglodyte villages and underground towns โ€“ the remains of a traditional human habitat dating back to the 4th century โ€“ can also be seen there.

Since 1985 it is a Unesco site.

Thanks to Esin for the postcard.

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